The Caspian Sea and its rapid sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene (Fig. 1) has been the subject of significant research during the last two decades (MAMEDOV, 1997; RYCHAGOV, 1997; KROONENBERG et al., 2000; LAHIJANI et al., 2009; LEROY et al., 2011; KAKROODI et al., 2012; NADERI BENI et al., 2013a and 2013b).
Fig. 1 – Caspian Sea level changes during the last millennium
The dotted horizontal line denotes the present sea-level position. The dashed line indicates the reconstructed sea-level changes during last millennium based on historical and geological evidence (Naderi Beni et al., 2013a). The continuous line depicts the instrumental sea-level record since the 1830s.
The main pacemaker of long-term Caspian Sea level changes is climate (KROONENBERG et al., 2007; NADERI BENI et al., 2013a; LEROY et al., 2013). These sea‑level oscillations have had different impacts on coastal evolution depending on the coastal setting (NADERI BENI et al., 2013b). Coastal de...