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Relative sea-level changes and submersion of archaeological sites along the northern shoreline of the Black Sea

Variations relatives du niveau de la mer et submersion des vestiges archéologiques du littoral septentrional de la mer Noire
Alexey Porotov
p. 29-36

Abstracts

This paper examines archaeological data from the northern coast of the Black Sea to evaluate the possibility of using them as sea-level indicators for the past 3000 years. Despite the widespread presence of submerged cultural remnants, limitations in the use of geoarchaeological indicators are related to the disturbance of cultural layers by wave action and currents, and the scarcity of harbour remains. The review of existing data from various sites shows the presence of submerged cultural layers that did not exceed 2.5-3.5 m below present, corroborating a slow sea-level rise during the first millennium AD.

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Mer Noire, Crimée, Ukraine
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1 - Introduction

1One of the most important questions regarding the Black Sea’s Holocene paleoenvironments is concerned with the nature of Holocene sea-level rise and the reliability of low-amplitude sea-level fluctuations. Interest in palaeoenvironments at the time of Greek colonization of the Black Sea coast has led to special attention being paid to a speculated 1st millennium BC regression. Despite archaeological evidence for a low relative sea level (RSL) during the second half of the 1st millennium BC to the second half of the 1st millennium AD, the amplitude and chronology of the so-called “Phanagorian regression” are unresolved (Balabanov and Izmailov, 1988). RSL mobility for the last 3000 years is important in reconstructing the palaeotopographies and evolution of the Black Sea’s largest ancient cities. There are numerous difficulties in reconstructing RSL changes since antiquity. Small sandy barriers have only been preserved in the inner part of semi-isolated gulfs and limans (e.g. the Gulf of Taman, Kerch strait etc.). On several coastal stretches of the Black Sea, coastline progradation during the subsequent period has buried beach ridges beneath younger coastal sediments. Unfortunately, such coastal archives are not widespread. In light of this, various indirect indicators, mainly lithological, must be used to reconstruct sea-level changes. For example, the absence of widespread peat layers has been overcome using relict beach and nearshore facies, although these have significant vertical error bars. Further difficulties have arisen due to radiocarbon discrepancies. This has created a problem due to the 100-450 year offsets that can exist between radiocarbon and historical dates.Until now, much of the existing paleogeographical work using archaeological data has ignored the possible discrepancies between different types of chronology. This calls into question the reliability of many existing palaeogeographical reconstructions.

2The scarcity of geomorphological RSL indicators in the Black Sea during antiquity has led to interest in coastal archaeology, dominated notably by Greek cultural layers. Late Bronze to Early Iron Age societies and later Medieval cultures did not leave notable traces in the coastal area. Within the context of our ongoing research into the paleogeographical evolution of the Black Sea during antiquity, this paper reviews sea-level changes during the Classical period on the basis of archeological and geomorphological data from selected sites.

Fig. 1 - The ancient settlements of the northern region of the Black Sea (after Tolstikov, 1997).
Les cités antiques de la mer Noire septentrionale (d’après Tolstikov, 1997).

Fig. 1 - The ancient settlements of the northern region of the Black Sea (after Tolstikov, 1997).Les cités antiques de la mer Noire septentrionale (d’après Tolstikov, 1997).

2 - South-western Crimea and Bug liman

3Underwater research on the south-western coast of the Crimean peninsula (Fig.1) has shown the presence of ancient structures and Hellenistic to medieval period ceramics (Blavatsky, 1985; Kadeev, 1969). For example, the submerged remains lie adjacent to defense walls of the ancient port of Chersonesos. The medieval towers presently lie 0.7-1.0 mbelow sea level. The archaeological material comprises amphorae and ceramic fragments from the Hellenistic (3rd to 2nd centuries BC) and medieval (8th to 9th and 12th to 13th centuries AD) periods, which not only date the structures, but also attest to the use of an ancient land surface until the 13th century AD. Hydroacoustic and underwater archaeological research (Zolotarev and Iones, 1979; Zolotarev, 2004) have elucidated numerous archaeological structures down to depths of 3 to 3.5 m including harbourworks (moles, jetties and quays). The results of this study yielded evidence on the extension of the ancient city and have allowed the ancient coastline, presently drowned 3.5 - 5.0 m below present, to be located (Fig. 2). Archaelogical research at ancient Chersonesos (Blagovolin and Sheglov, 1968 and 1969) has revealed traces of historical RSL change. Wells, cellars, fish and water tanks located along a coastal strip on the northern part of the city indicate that between the 4th‑3rd centuries BC to the 10th-11th centuries AD RSL lay below present. Sea-level regression is attested to by peculiar city planning in the port area, which is characterized by continuous urban expansion from the 5th-4th centuries BC to the 10th-11th centuries AD. After the 12th-13th centuries AD, sea-level rise caused the base of “tower XXI” and the southeast outskirts of Chersonesos to be flooded. Archaeological material from the Chersonesos coastal area indicates that between the foundation of the city and the 10th-11th centuries AD sea level did not reach its present position. Changes in urban planning during the 2nd-3rd, 5th-6th, 9th-10th and 13th-14th centuries AD have been attributed to changes in economic and politicallife (Blagovolin and Sheglov, 1968) and do not reflect rising sea level during the 1st millennium AD (Shilik, 1997). On the basis of Chersonesos’ coastal geoarchaeology we propose a RSL curve for the area (Fig. 3). The data are confirmed by our researh on the Kerch-Taman coastline, despite regional differences for the Black Sea (Kaplin and Selivanov, 1999).

Fig. 2

Fig. 2

A. General plan of Chersonessos (after Tolstikov, 1997). B. Reconstruction of the submerged part of  ancient Chersonesos (after Zolotarev, 2004): 1 - present shoreline; 2 - shoreline in antiquity (the last centuries BC) at a depth of 3.0-3.5 m ; 3 - stone wreckage (basement of watch tower?); 4 - slipways (?).
A. Plan de la ville de Chersonèse (d’après Tolstikov, 1997). B. Reconstitution de la partie ennoyée de la Chersonèse antique (d’après Zolotarev, 2004).

Fig. 3 - Relative sea-level changes for the region of Chersonesos (after Blagovolin and Sheglov, 1968).
Variations relatives du niveau de la mer à Chersonèse (d’après Blagovolin et Sheglov, 1968).

Fig. 3 - Relative sea-level changes for the region of Chersonesos (after Blagovolin and Sheglov, 1968).Variations relatives du niveau de la mer à Chersonèse (d’après Blagovolin et Sheglov, 1968).

4Ancient Olbia is one of the best investigated underwater sites and has been significant in understanding RSL changes since antiquity. The drowned archaeological remains have enabled a reconstruction of the lower city. The layout of the underwater archaeology is given in Fig. 4.The two defensive structures are located 2.0-2.3 m below present and have been constrained to the 5th to 3rd centuries BC (Krijisky, 1984). Remnants of a defensive wall along the palaeo-liman coastline allow the eastern border of the lower city to be delineated. At depths of 2.2-3.1 m two amphora fields have been elucidated: the first (southern) field yielded material from the 4th century BC, while thesecond, 50-60 m north of the former zone, contains ceramic material from the end of the 6th to 4th centuries AD (Leipunskaya, 1984). Cultural layers from the mid-1st millennium AD, on the outskirts of the lower city, do not corroborate the so-called “Nymphaeum” transgression. Underwater research at Olbia has shown that cultural layers in the outer part of the lower city presently lie 2.5-3.3 m below MSL. These remains broadly attest to a mid-1st millennium BC sea level at 5.0-4.5 m below present. Ceramics indicate that the lower city continued to function until the 3rd century AD, and indirectly testifies to moderate RSL changes between the end of the 1st millennium BC and the first half of the 1st millennium AD. The absence of structures directly related to the sea level does not allow us to be more precise in RSL reconstruction. Despite the large error margins, this reconstruction is consistent with the data from ancient Chersonesos.

Fig. 4 - A- Reconstruction of the submerged part of Olbia (after Krijisky, 1984). B- Present-day position of principal submerged remains at Olbia (positionof remnants 1-7 is marked on figure 4A).
Reconstitution des secteurs submergés d’Olbiza (d’après Krijisky, 1984).

Fig. 4 - A- Reconstruction of the submerged part of Olbia (after Krijisky, 1984). B- Present-day position of principal submerged remains at Olbia (positionof remnants 1-7 is marked on figure 4A).Reconstitution des secteurs submergés d’Olbiza (d’après Krijisky, 1984).

1 - remnants of a stone construction; 2 - “amphoras fields”; 3 - eastern limit of the low town; 4 - basement of defensive walls; 5 - northern limit of the low town in IV-II BC; 6 - archaeological remnants.

5The Black Sea’s northwestern limans contain numerous lithological and biostratigraphical traces of sea-level mobility (Fig.5). The bottom sediments adjacent to the Olbia Dniepr-Bug liman comprise intercalated sandy layers containing fresh water molluscs. In the upper part of the Bug liman, cores have revealed peat layers at 4.0-5.0 m below present sea level. Radiocarbon dates allow this sequence to be constrained to the 1st millennium BC, at which time RSL was ca. 4.5-5.5 m below present.The onset of this last transgressive phase has been dated to 1600 years BP (uncalibrated radiocarbon age).

6The ancient city of Kerkinitida is located on the south-western shoreline of Crimea, on a low-lying promontory that closes the northern boundary of Kalamite bay (Fig. 6). According to archaeological research in this area (Sheglov, 1978; Kutaisov, 1988), the stratigraphy of the settlement comprises two main archaeological layers dating from: (1) the 5th century BC to  the 2nd century AD; and (2) the Scythian to the second half of the 2nd century AD. The first occupation layer contains several sublayers that reflect the evolution of the ancient city. Despite a dearth of data pertaining to the palaeotopography of the ancient city, there are several indicators that point to a low RSL position during the Late Bronze to Early Medieval times. It is primarily attested to by flooding of the low part of the stratigraphic sequence at 1.7-1.8 m below present (Kutaisov, 1988). On the adjacent Kerkinitida coastal façade, there are many examples of submerged cultural layers at -3 m below present including well floors and construction bases. On the southern outskirts of Kerkinitida there is also evidence of occupation layers at -2.0m, which overly late Holocene lagoonal clays and barrier sands. Despite the absence of precise sea-level indicators, the geoarchaelogical data confirm a RSL position at 4-5 m below present during ancient times (Sheglov, 1978).

Fig. 5 - Late Holocene stratigraphy of Bug liman (after Shilik, 1997)
Stratigraphie fin-Holocène du Bug liman (d’après Shilik, 1997).

Fig. 5 - Late Holocene stratigraphy of Bug liman (after Shilik, 1997)Stratigraphie fin-Holocène du Bug liman (d’après Shilik, 1997).

A - Beach-near-shore sediments in Olbia. 1 - beach sand; 2 - cultural layer;
3 - mid-Holocene shelly sand; 4 - pre-Quaternary clay.
B - Bottom sediment of the Bug liman. 1 - pre-Quaternary clay; 2 - liman; 3 - silty sand; 4 - silty clay; 5 - sand; 6 - shell; 7 - depth in m; 8 - Radiocarbon date.
C - Structure and geochronology of the upper layer of liman sediments (after Molodich et al., 1984): 1 - clay; 2 - sandy clay; 3 - sands with shingle; 4 - silty clay; 5 - silt; 6 - shells; 7 - amphoras.

Fig. 6  - Coastal sediment structure of the south-western Crimea
Stratigraphie littorale de la Crimée sud-occidentale.

Fig. 6  - Coastal sediment structure of the south-western CrimeaStratigraphie littorale de la Crimée sud-occidentale.

A - Coastline of the south-western Crimea. B - Ancient city of Kerkinitida (after Kutaisov, 1988): 1 - pre-Holocene loamy soil, 2 - with limestone debris; 3 - liman clay; 4 - barrier sand; 5 - soil; 6 - cultural layers; 7 - substratum. C - Barrier-spit of lake Sasyk (after Zenkovich, 1960): 1 - sand with shell; 2 - oolite sand; 3 - sand; 4 - grey clay; 5 - black clay; 6 - loamy soil; 7 - limestone.

3 - Kerch Strait

7Reconstruction of sea-level changes for the coastal regions of Kerch Strait (Fig.7) are based on three types of sedimentary archives: (1) submerged spits (palaeo-Tuzla, palaeo-Chushka  etc., Nevessky, 1958); (2) marine sediments in the open part of Kerch strait (Skibaet al., 1975); and (3) late Holocene coastal sediments (Fedorov, 1984). The stratigraphy has recorded changes in the nature of semi-enclosed liman environments around 6000 BP. On the coast, palaeo-spits such as palaeo-Tuzla, palaeo-Chushka and palaeo-Kamish-Burun have been located 6-9 m below present (Nevessky, 1967). However, caution is needed because the chronology of the palaeo-shorelines is based mainly on biostratigraphy.

8Coastal stratigraphy has revealed mid-Holocene marine sediments close to present. Despite the absence of chronological constraints for this layer, the biostratigraphy allows us to correlate it with a mid-Holocene transgressive stage between 4200 and 3500 years BP. Fragments of this marine terrace are widespread along the shorelines of the Kerch strait. Geomorphological data indicate that several coastlines are also located at these depths. One of them has been studied by Nevessky (1967) and concerns the period 6500 to 6000 yrs BP. A preliminary study of the late Holocene palaeo-shorelines underlines the importance of Kerch’s submerged archaeological remains in precisely reconstructing the region’s sea-level history.

9Submerged Classical archaeology (defensive constructions, wells, amphora fields, anchors), on the fringes of Cimmerian Bosporus ancient settlements (Panticapaeum, Akra, Nymphaeum ; Fig.7), now lie between 2.5-4.5 m below present and testify to lower sea level during the second half of the 1st millennium BC and the early centuries AD (Nikonov, 1998). Unfortunately, the research has yet to reveal the remains of an ancient harbour with which to precisely tie in the sea-level data. Only at Theodosia, south-east Crimea, have numerous remnants of ancient piers and moles been unearthed (Kolly, 1909). During construction works in the port area, more than 4000 ancient wood piles were found at 4 m below present MSL. The bases of the piles lie 8 m below present sea level. Archaeological surveys of the adjacent sea floor have revealed more than a dozen ancient amphorae, which have been related to construction of the pier. These findings are one of the most precise archaeological indicators of RSL change since antiquity. Unfortunately, modern construction works have almost completely destroyed these remnants.

Fig. 7 - Ancient cities on the coastline of the Kerch strait.
Cités antiques du détroit de Kerch.

Fig. 7 - Ancient cities on the coastline of the Kerch strait.Cités antiques du détroit de Kerch.

10On the southwest coast of Kerch Strait lies the small settlement of Akra (Кulikov, 1997). Much of the settlement is now flooded by the sea, and only the northwest portion of the city walls are located on a sand spit that separates lake Yanish from the sea. Underwater surveys (Shilik, 1991) have unearthed stone slabs, ceramics and the base of defensive walls and towers at 4-4.5 m below present MSL. The settlement has been dated between the 4th century BC to the 4th century AD. The presence of 6th to 8th century AD archaeological remains at 1.3-2.4 m below present shows that these now shallow coastal belts were inhabited up until the early medieval period. Indirectly, the remains constrain the beginning of the transgressive phase to the end of the 1st millennium AD.

11Research on the coastal area of Classical Nymphaeum has elucidated cultural remains at 6.5 m below present (Fig.8). Stone remains were found over a wide area down to depths of 1 to 4.5 m and attest to a drowned ancient coast (Scholl and Zinko, 1999 ; Zinko, 1994 and 2003). These constructions have been dated to the 4th to 3rd centuries BC on the basis of ceramics. Stone anchors at -6.0 to -6.5 m from this and the later medieval period suggest that the ancient harbour lies in the outermost part of the submerged area.

Fig. 8 - Coastal stratigraphy near ancient Nymphaeum.
Stratigraphie littorale du secteur de Nymphaeum.

Fig. 8 - Coastal stratigraphy near ancient Nymphaeum. Stratigraphie littorale du secteur de Nymphaeum.

1 - soil; 2 - dune sand; 3 - sand with shells; 4 - loamy soil with cultural remains; 5 - shelly sand; 6 - constructions.

12Drowned archaeological remains at Nymphaeum and Akra constrain sea level in the second half of the 1st millennium BC to 5-5.5 m below present. Medieval ceramics date the Black Sea’s last transgressive phase to the second half of the 1st millennium AD. The archaeological data are consistent with coastal stratigraphy. The radiocarbon age of shells from the lower marine terrace in Kerch Strait attest to a relatively late date for beach ridge formation ca. 1040 ± 80 years BP (Badiniva and Zubakov, 1976).

13Preliminary geomorphological surveys in the coastal area around ancient Nymphaeum have shed light on the sedimentary structure of marine terraces attributed to the Black Sea’s last Holocene transgressive stage (Fedorov, 1978).The silty sands are intercalated with paleosols which contain scattered ceramic material and construction layers dating from the 4th to 2nd centuries BC (Zinko, 2003). These are overlain by coarse shelly sands which lie at 0 ± 0.5 m relative to present sea level. The molluscan suite includes taxa such as Ostrea edulis, Chione gallina, Cardium edule, Chlamys glabra, Donax trunculus with a dominance of Chione gallina (50 %), yielding a radiocarbon age of 4400 to 3200 years BP. The presence of mid-Holocene transgressive deposits confirms that relative sea level during this period did not exceed its present position (0 ± 0.5m).

4 - Taman peninsula

14On the eastern shoreline of the Kerch Strait, archaeological objects have been revealed by geophysical research (Abramov, 1999 and Abramov and Vasil’ev, 2003). East of Chushka spit, down to a depth of 1 m below present sea level, the remains of a defensive wall have been found (Fig.9). The base of a wall lies at -2 to -2.6 m (Abramov and Vasil’ev, 2003). Underwater excavations have shown a construction layer on pre-Holocene continental clays and loam soils. The depth of the defensive structures coincides with the Classical period on the western shoreline Kerch Strait.

15The coastal stratigraphy of the westerly Chushka spit has revealed a sedimentary hiatus related to a hypothetical RSL fall between 3000 and 1500 years BP. This hiatus is a common feature of coastal archives in the Kerch Strait and has been attributed to the “Phanagorian regression”. Renewal of nearshore sedimentation led to the accretion of beach ridges, radiocarbon dated to 1300 to 1100 years BP and formed at a sea level 2-3 m below present.

16Underwater archaeological studies of the flooded areas of Phanagoria (Blavatsky, 1985 ; Fig.10) have revealed traces of stone pavements and ceramics at -3m, dating to the 4th to 3rd centuries BC. Drowned archaeological layers in the gulf allow us to constrain RSL to 4.5-5.0 m below present during the 1st millennium BC (Blavatsky, 1985). The recent excavation of submerged parts of the city of Phanagoria (Kuznetsovet al., 2003, 2006) have revealed wooden frameworks filled with stone, the surface of which lies at 1.2-1.4 m below present. This structure and the surrounding sea floor have yielded large quantities of ceramics dating to late antiquity and the early medieval period. The age of this construction is equivocal; however, numismatic finds dating from the 3rd to 4th centuries AD serve as an upper time-boundary.

17Underwater research on the submerged part of Patrey, which is located on the north-western coastline of the Gulf of Taman, has shown that the lower city had a width of about 400m; this land surface is presently drowned 4 m below present. According to the archaeological topography and the location of remnants (stone vestiges, pits, ceramic finds) the coastline lies 360-385 m from the present, and is submerged 4.4-4.9 m below present (Osmanova, 1999). The occupation layers were significantly eroded during the last transgressive phase. The scarce constructional remnants (the earliest of which are dated to the end of the 6th to the beginning of the 5th centuries BC) are located 2.2 to 2.3 m below present.

18On the southern coastal flank of the Taman peninsula, around cape Panagia, underwater research has revealed limestone blocks and ceramics from the 4th century BC to the 3rd century AD, presently submerged 5 m below present MSL. Offshore, down to depths of 5-8m, various types of anchors, amphora fragments, roofing tiles and other building remains are consistent with an ancient harbour (Kondrashov, 1995). In light of these archaeological data, relative sea level is inferred to have changed by 5.0 to 5.5 m during the last 2500 years. These findings are confirmed by data from the Black Sea’s northern seaboard (Kaplin and Selivanov, 2004).

19Archaelogical data of RSL changes in the Gulf of Taman during the past 3000 to 4000 years are complemented by the study of sediment archives at various sites (Fouacheet al., 2004, 2005).In the outer part of the Gulf of Taman, fossil sand barriers lie 2-4 m below present. This transgressive sequence reflects the onshore movement of sand tracts covering up the underlying lagoonal facies. Radiocarbon dates from the base of the barrier yielded an age of 2450 ± 70 years BP (ca. 339 cal. BC – 50 cal. AD). The drowned barrier system represents one of the many examples of the “Phanagorian transgression” during the second half of the 1st millennium BC, when relative sea level lay 5 to 5.5 m below present. As a rule, on the open stretches of the Black Sea the coastal forms of this time have been destroyed by wave erosion during the last 1500 years.

Fig. 9 - Cultural remains on the Taman peninsula (from Abramov and Vasil’ev, 2003).
Vestiges archéologiques submergés de la péninsule de Taman (d’après Abramov et Vasil’ev, 2003).

Fig. 9 - Cultural remains on the Taman peninsula (from Abramov and Vasil’ev, 2003).Vestiges archéologiques submergés de la péninsule de Taman (d’après Abramov et Vasil’ev, 2003).

A - map; B - underwater defensive structure: 1 - coarse sand; 2 - medium to fine sand; 3 - silty clay;  4 - stone rampart; 5 - loamy soil; 6 - paleo-soil horizon.

Fig. 10 - Stratigraphy of the Gulf of Taman, Phanagoria area.
Vestiges archéologiques submergés de la péninsule de Taman (d’après Abramov et Vasil’ev, 2003).

Fig. 10 - Stratigraphy of the Gulf of Taman, Phanagoria area.Vestiges archéologiques submergés de la péninsule de Taman (d’après Abramov et Vasil’ev, 2003).

1 - coarse shelly sand; 2 - medium sand with shell debris; 3 - fine sand with shell; 4 - clay with shell; 5 - silty clay; 6 - loamy soil; 7 - radiocarbon age, uncalib BP;  8 - cultural layers IVBC-IIAD of ancient Pahanagoria (after Blavatsky, 1985). For the profile position, see Fig. 9, A - A.

5 - Conclusion

20This preliminary comparison of drowned archaeological remains in the north-eastern Black Sea with existing geomorphological data has allowed us to constrain RSL during the mid-1st millennium BC to 5.0-5.5 m below present. According to early medieval ceramics, this lasted until the 9th to 11th centuries AD. Geomorphological data from Taman peninsula and several other locations on the Crimean seaboard are broadly consistent.

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Zinko V.-N., (2003), The chora of Nymphaion. Simferopol-Kerch, 318 p.

Zolotarev M.-I., (2004), Port construction of Chersonesos Taurika, Chersonesos Collection, 13, p. 55-67, (in Russian).

 Zolotarev M.-I., Iones E.B., (1979), Geoacoustic research in the submerged port area of Chersonesos, inNew applications of physical and mathematical methods in Archaeology, Мoscow, p. 81-83, (in Russian).

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List of illustrations

Title Fig. 1 - The ancient settlements of the northern region of the Black Sea (after Tolstikov, 1997).Les cités antiques de la mer Noire septentrionale (d’après Tolstikov, 1997).
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-1.png
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Title Fig. 2
Caption A. General plan of Chersonessos (after Tolstikov, 1997). B. Reconstruction of the submerged part of  ancient Chersonesos (after Zolotarev, 2004): 1 - present shoreline; 2 - shoreline in antiquity (the last centuries BC) at a depth of 3.0-3.5 m ; 3 - stone wreckage (basement of watch tower?); 4 - slipways (?).A. Plan de la ville de Chersonèse (d’après Tolstikov, 1997). B. Reconstitution de la partie ennoyée de la Chersonèse antique (d’après Zolotarev, 2004).
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-2.png
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Title Fig. 3 - Relative sea-level changes for the region of Chersonesos (after Blagovolin and Sheglov, 1968).Variations relatives du niveau de la mer à Chersonèse (d’après Blagovolin et Sheglov, 1968).
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-3.png
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Title Fig. 4 - A- Reconstruction of the submerged part of Olbia (after Krijisky, 1984). B- Present-day position of principal submerged remains at Olbia (positionof remnants 1-7 is marked on figure 4A).Reconstitution des secteurs submergés d’Olbiza (d’après Krijisky, 1984).
Caption 1 - remnants of a stone construction; 2 - “amphoras fields”; 3 - eastern limit of the low town; 4 - basement of defensive walls; 5 - northern limit of the low town in IV-II BC; 6 - archaeological remnants.
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-4.png
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Title Fig. 5 - Late Holocene stratigraphy of Bug liman (after Shilik, 1997)Stratigraphie fin-Holocène du Bug liman (d’après Shilik, 1997).
Caption A - Beach-near-shore sediments in Olbia. 1 - beach sand; 2 - cultural layer;3 - mid-Holocene shelly sand; 4 - pre-Quaternary clay.B - Bottom sediment of the Bug liman. 1 - pre-Quaternary clay; 2 - liman; 3 - silty sand; 4 - silty clay; 5 - sand; 6 - shell; 7 - depth in m; 8 - Radiocarbon date.C - Structure and geochronology of the upper layer of liman sediments (after Molodich et al., 1984): 1 - clay; 2 - sandy clay; 3 - sands with shingle; 4 - silty clay; 5 - silt; 6 - shells; 7 - amphoras.
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-5.png
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Title Fig. 6  - Coastal sediment structure of the south-western CrimeaStratigraphie littorale de la Crimée sud-occidentale.
Caption A - Coastline of the south-western Crimea. B - Ancient city of Kerkinitida (after Kutaisov, 1988): 1 - pre-Holocene loamy soil, 2 - with limestone debris; 3 - liman clay; 4 - barrier sand; 5 - soil; 6 - cultural layers; 7 - substratum. C - Barrier-spit of lake Sasyk (after Zenkovich, 1960): 1 - sand with shell; 2 - oolite sand; 3 - sand; 4 - grey clay; 5 - black clay; 6 - loamy soil; 7 - limestone.
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-6.png
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Title Fig. 7 - Ancient cities on the coastline of the Kerch strait.Cités antiques du détroit de Kerch.
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-7.png
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Title Fig. 8 - Coastal stratigraphy near ancient Nymphaeum. Stratigraphie littorale du secteur de Nymphaeum.
Caption 1 - soil; 2 - dune sand; 3 - sand with shells; 4 - loamy soil with cultural remains; 5 - shelly sand; 6 - constructions.
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-8.png
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Title Fig. 9 - Cultural remains on the Taman peninsula (from Abramov and Vasil’ev, 2003).Vestiges archéologiques submergés de la péninsule de Taman (d’après Abramov et Vasil’ev, 2003).
Caption A - map; B - underwater defensive structure: 1 - coarse sand; 2 - medium to fine sand; 3 - silty clay;  4 - stone rampart; 5 - loamy soil; 6 - paleo-soil horizon.
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-9.png
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Title Fig. 10 - Stratigraphy of the Gulf of Taman, Phanagoria area.Vestiges archéologiques submergés de la péninsule de Taman (d’après Abramov et Vasil’ev, 2003).
Caption 1 - coarse shelly sand; 2 - medium sand with shell debris; 3 - fine sand with shell; 4 - clay with shell; 5 - silty clay; 6 - loamy soil; 7 - radiocarbon age, uncalib BP;  8 - cultural layers IVBC-IIAD of ancient Pahanagoria (after Blavatsky, 1985). For the profile position, see Fig. 9, A - A.
URL http://mediterranee.revues.org/docannexe/image/160/img-10.png
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References

Electronic reference

Alexey Porotov, « Relative sea-level changes and submersion of archaeological sites along the northern shoreline of the Black Sea », Méditerranée [Online], 108 | 2007, Online since 01 January 2009, connection on 27 July 2017. URL : http://mediterranee.revues.org/160 ; DOI : 10.4000/mediterranee.160

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About the author

Alexey Porotov

Geographical faculty, Moscow State University – Russia - avporotov@yandex.ru

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Copyright

Tous droits réservés

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